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-- [ 羊疣龛鲟 1 ] --

奈仕滥 衔僚娜遗伺

膛颇油佬文臀 膛坡忧温咽紊

饰驮判磐秩 姥先欣鸵温

岩幽磐椅 欣娜秩

臀吕秩 讶岩盘

盐滦盘磐臀梦 形蜒壬咽蚊 闲缆阑

(堂蘩, 老信塑 2008 .)

.. 晾忍温*

闲瘟伺疼 信浪惹乐热 闲韧秩侠 依赏蚊 梦宋盐吕腿 武龛 桤 忄骓彘 镳桧鲨镱 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 镳噔 怆弪 镳桧鲨 蜞轫钽 泐腩耦忄龛. 雾 钺羼镥麒忄弪 疋钺钿眍 忸脲桤怆屙桢 沭噫溧 磬 恹犷疣 怆弪 礤铗祀屐铋 鬣耱 膻犷泐 溴祛牮囹梓羼觐泐 钺耱忄. 湾耢铗 磬 邈 玎觐眍溧蝈朦眍 玎牮屣脲龛, 磬 镳嚓蜩赍 耋耱怏弪 镳钺脲 镱 镱忸潴 邈 疱嚯桤圉梃.

绣嚯桤圉 镳桧鲨镟 蜞轫钽 泐腩耦忄龛 镳 疣珥 忤溧 泐腩耦忄龛.

1. 妙腩耦忄龛 镱戾龛 潆 泐腩耦忄龛. 项戾龛 潆 泐腩耦忄龛 钺铕箐簋蝰 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 黩钺 钺羼镥麒忄螯 疋钺钿 恹犷疣 蜞轫 忸脲桤怆屙 沭噫溧.

橡 溧眄铎 忤溴 泐腩耦忄龛 漕忸朦眍 鬣耱 怦蝠鬻帼蝰 耠篦噼 恹眍襦 礤玎镱腠屙睇 狺腚弪屙彘 襦扈扈 桤徼疣蝈扈 桴 镱耠邃簋 镳钿噫 噼眚屦羼钼囗睇 腓鲟旎, 觐蝾瘥 磬躅蝰 礤溧脲觐 铗 桤徼疣蝈朦睇 篦囫蜿钼. 纂屙 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃 磬犭囹咫 礤 祛泱 赅蝈泐痂麇耜 玎镳弪栩 恹礤耱 狺腚弪屙 疋玷 耦 疋钺钿铋 忸脲桤怆屙, 镳邃篑祛蝠屙眍 痤耨栝耜桁 玎觐眍溧蝈朦耱忸.

拎桁钼 .., * 羊箐屙蜿 勿屙狍疸耜钽 桧耱栩篁 堂蘩.

念觌噤 镱徨滂蝈脲 戾驿箜囵钿眍 戾驸箸钼耜铋 觐眙屦屙鲨 锐蝾痂 珥噱 耠篦噼 镱潢箫 桤徼疣蝈脲 忸珉 桤徼疣蝈朦睇 篦囫蜿钼 矬蝈 溧疱龛 钿眍泐 犷蜩黻 钺妁囗 怵篦栩 怛铕铋 镳 恹眍皴 礤玎镱腠屙眍泐 狺腚弪屙 篦囫蜿.

痒栩噱, 黩 溴轳蜮屙眍 汔疣眚桢 耱囗弪 玎镳弪 磬 恹眍 狺腚弪屙彘 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 篦囫蜿, 觐蝾瘥 镱玮铍栩 钽疣龛麒螯 祛眄梓羼蜮.

玎牮屣脲眄铋 玎觐礤 疋钺钿铋 忸脲桤怆屙 疋玎磬 镳钺脲爨 泐腩耦忄龛 钿眍 赅徼礤 耩噻 礤耜铍桴 麟屙钼 皴禳 (祗驵 驽睇). 枢 镳噔桦, 磬 玎戾鬣龛 麟屙钼 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃 磬犭囹咫彘 铐 耨帼蝰 磬 钺 镱腓蜩麇耜桢 忡汶潲 桦 铗耋蝰蜮桢 铟觐 钿眍泐 桤 龛.

橡邃豚汔屐 礤耜铍 箧羼蝾麒螯 镳铞邃箴 泐腩耦忄龛 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 黩钺 麟屙 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃, 磬犭囹咫 桁咫 镳噔 镳羼鬻 蜞觐泐 痤溧 溴轳蜮 桤徼疣蝈脲, 怙腩螯 漕 磬耔朦眍泐 恹忸溧 钿眍泐 桤 泐腩耋桴 桤 赅徼睇.

麒耠 磬痼龛, 桉赅驵桴 蜞轫铄 忸脲桤怆屙桢 沭噫溧, 铗眍耔蝰 镱瘅 狺腚弪屙彘. 亦, 2002 . 猁豚 铖箧溴磬 沭箫镟 痼觐忸滂蝈脲 篦囫蜿钼铋 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃 玎 羿朦耔翳赅鲨 桤徼疣蝈朦睇 漕牦戾眚钼 磬 恹犷疣 镳彗桎屙蜞 左忄觐 疱耧筢腓觇. 项滗噔顸 磬 筱钼铕 钿眍泐 桤 磬犭囹咫彘 铗 赅礓桎囹 ., 铐 怦牮 箫嚓钼觇 狺腚弪屙扈 狺腚弪屙 铗戾蜿囔 玎 赅礓桎囹 . 忭羼腓 漕镱腠栩咫 铗戾蜿 漯筱桢 赈噤疣螓, 疱珞朦蜞蝈 麇泐  狺腚弪屙 耱嚯 礤溴轳蜮栩咫, 麒耠 泐腩耦 玎 赅礓桎囹 . 耦牮囹桦铖 磬 131.

袜 磬 忡汶, 麇耱眍祗 镱漶麇蝮 泐腩耦 狍溴 耧铖钺耱忸忄螯 镳桉篁耱忤 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 烟, 戾驿箜囵钿睇 磬犭囹咫彘.

2. 念耩铟眍 泐腩耦忄龛. 如徼疣蝈朦 桁邋 忸珈铈眍耱 镳钽铍铖钼囹 漕耩铟眍 矬蝈 镱溧麒 玎怆屙 箨噻囗桢 镳梓桧 镳钽铍铖钼囹 漕耩铟眍. 橡嚓蜩赍 桤忮耱睇 耠篦噼 磬痼龛 蜞轫 泐腩耦忄龛 磬 漕耩铟睇 恹犷疣.

袜 恹犷疣 溴矬蜞蝾 妙耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 捏禧 砚屦潆钼耜铋 钺豚耱 猁腓 篑蜞眍怆屙 祉钽铟桉脲眄 羿牝 镱潢箫 桤徼疣蝈脲 镳 铕汔龛玎鲨 漕耩铟眍泐 泐腩耦忄龛 耱铕铐龛赅扈 钿眍泐 桤 赅礓桎囹钼.

畜觐忸滂蝈腓 镳邃镳蜩 镳邃铖蜞怆腓 篦囫蜮簋 蜞觐 泐腩耦忄龛 铗泱臌.

橡邃耱噔弪, 黩 潆 犷瘘猁 磬痼龛扈 礤钺躅滂祛 箧羼蝾麒螯 恹溧黧 疣琊屮屙栝 镳钽铍铖钼囹 漕耩铟眍. 枢 镳噔桦, 镳梓桧, 箨噻囗眢 玎怆屙梃 沭噫溧龛磬, 驽豚邈 镳钽铍铖钼囹 漕耩铟眍, 怦邈溧 疣耨爨蝠桠帼 赅 筲噫栩咫簋. 令脲 蝾泐, 忄骓 蝾黜 铒疱溴腓螯 忮顸 镥疱麇睃 蜞 磬琨忄屐 筲噫栩咫 镳梓桧, 蜞 赅 镳嚓蜩赍 桤忮耱睇 耠篦噼 箨噻囗 玎怆屙梃 蜞觇 镳梓桧, 赅 耜铍赅 漕痤汔 漕 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 篦囫蜿, 忮潼 玎 桁 祛驽 耜瘥忄螯 珉铋 箪咫 祛眄桕钼 囡铍篦栩 漕镱腠栩咫 泐腩襦.

3. 妙腩耦忄龛 忭 镱戾龛 镳钼钿 礤 戾礤 溻篚 麟屙钼 篦囫蜿钼铋 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃, 桁妣 镳 皴徨 镳邃忄痂蝈朦眍 铒錺>

class='zagtext'> LEX RUSSICA (屠幼哇 倚幽 堂蘩)

鬣蜞眄 镥疱眍耥铋  潆 泐腩耦忄龛, 礤钺躅滂祛 麒耠 镱塍麇眄 镱 疣耧桉牦 狺腚弪屙彘, 镨顸戾眄 玎怆屙 桤徼疣蝈脲.

橡嚓蜩赍 桤忮耱屙 耠篦嚅 泐腩耦忄龛 耱箐屙麇耜铎 钺骅蜩, 沅 镱 疱龛 觐戾礓囗蜞 玟囗 耱箐屙螓 泐腩耦忄腓 磬 镥疴铎 噫, 镳梓屐 磬犭嚯铖 镱腠铄 铗耋蝰蜮桢 篑腩忤 潆 眍痨嚯钽 泐腩耦忄龛 耦犭屙桢 镳桧鲨镟 蜞轫钽 泐腩耦忄龛: 桤徼疣蝈腓 溴豚腓 铗戾蜿 狺腚弪屙 耔, 耱, 钺腩觐蜩怿桉 磬 耱屙 潆 箐钺耱忄 镨顸爨, 觐腚尻蜩忭 耦忮顸 镱漶爨蝠桠 漯筱 漯筱 狺腚弪屙.

翌 驽 襦祛 祛骓 耜噻囹 钺 钿眍觐祉囹睇 赈囵蜩疣, 觐蝾瘥 桤徼疣蝈腓 玎镱腠 狺腚弪屙 镱潢 泐腩耦忄龛 忭 镱戾龛 潆 泐腩耦忄龛, 沅 漕 祛泱 磬躅滂螯 赅 痤漶蜮屙龛觇 泐腩耋邈, 蜞 镳桉篁耱怏桢 麟屙 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃.

捏爨弪, 玎觐眍溧蝈膻 耠邃箦 犷脲 镱漯钺眍 疱汶囔屙蜩痤忄螯 镱漕 蜞觐泐 忤溧 泐腩耦忄龛, 忮潼 玎觐礤 麇蜿 礤 镳邃篑祛蝠屙, 磬 赅觐 疣耨蝾龛 漕腈睇 溧眄铎 耠篦噱 磬躅滂螯 礤泐腩耋桢.

4. 妙腩耦忄龛 镱 铗牮屣栩咫 箐铖蝾忮疱龛 镳铊玮钿栩 蝾沅, 觐沅 桤徼疣蝈朦 礤 桁邋 忸珈铈眍耱 镳栳 溴睃 泐腩耦忄龛 磬 疋铋 桤徼疣蝈朦睇 篦囫蝾. 镱祛 铗牮屣栩咫钽 箐铖蝾忮疱龛 铐 祛驽 镳钽铍铖钼囹 磬 蝾 篦囫蜿, 沅 狍溴 磬躅滂螯 溴睃 恹犷痤.

橡桁鬻囹咫屙 铒 戾犟桕囗耜铋 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 耔耱屐, 沅 镳邃篑祛蝠屙 磬礤皴龛 耧弼栲朦眍 礤耢噱祛 骅潢铖蜩 磬 镟脲 镳钽铍铖钼噔泐 桤徼疣蝈, 溧猁 桤徨驵螯 邈 镱怛铕眍泐 泐腩耦忄龛 磬 漯筱铎 篦囫蜿.

捏爨弪, 礤镫铛桁 汔疣眚铎 耦犭屙 镳桧鲨镱 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 镳噔 猁腩 猁 忖邃屙桢 性 蜞觐 耔耱屐, 躅 猁 赅 漕镱腠栩咫钽 耧铖钺 觐眚痤. 皖, 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 忸镳铖 箫桊噱蝰 翳磬眈桊钼囗桢 溧眄钽 镳邃腩驽龛, 黩 怆鬻弪 邈 礤鲥脲耦钺疣珥铖螯.

务眍忭 忤潲 溴龛, 磬痼桢 镳桧鲨 蜞轫钽 泐腩耦忄龛.

襄疴 忤 玎忮漕祛 礤镳噔桦铄 耦耱噔脲龛 耧桉觐 赅礓桎囹钼, 桤徼疣蝈脲 (怅膻麇龛 龛 腓, 礤 钺豚溧桴 嚓蜩忭 桤徼疣蝈朦睇 镳噔铎, 爨腩脲蝽桴, 箪屦, 腓, 铗猁忄桴 磬赅玎龛, 腓犷 镳桤磬眄 耋漕 礤溴羼镱耦犴).

如忮耱睇 耠篦噼 镱怆屙 桤徼疣蝈朦睇 狺腚弪屙 蜞 磬琨忄屐 囗滂溧蝾-溻铋龛觐饣. 袜镳桁屦, 狺腚弪屙, 镱扈祛 疱嚯 耋耱怏邈 赅礓桎囹 枢疣皴忄 离尻襦礓疣 离尻襦礓痤忤鬣, 忭铖栩 钿眍羿扈脲 枢疣皴 离尻襦礓 丸觐豚邂梓. 如徼疣蝈腓, 鬣耱 礤 珥帼 桦 礤 钺疣桢 忭桁囗 磬 桧桷栲臌 疋铄泐 赅礓桎囹, 镱 铠栳赍 铗溧 泐腩 邈 忸轫桕蠡. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 泐腩襦 腓忄

镱朦珞 礤耋耱怏邈 赅礓桎囹. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 恹桡瘥忄弪 蝠弪栝 赅礓桎囹.

买铕铋 忤 篦桧屙桢 麟屙铎 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃 镱滹桉 玎 桤徼疣蝈, 觐蝾瘥 礤 泐腩耦忄.

茵弪栝 忤 腓龛 忸珈铈眍耱 镱溻羼蜩 栩钽 泐腩耦忄龛.

亦, 1999 . 绣耧筢腓赍 泥沐耱囗, 觐沅 镱 躅潴 镱漶麇蜞 泐腩耦 耱嗄铌豚潲 镱徨滂蝈脲 戾驿箜囵钿眍 戾驸箸钼耜铋 觐眙屦屙鲨 眍忤腩顸 桤忮耱睇, 黩 赅礓桎囹 . 恹桡瘥忄弪 磬 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 篦囫蜿, 镳邃耱噔栩咫 赅礓桎囹 . 铕汔龛珙忄腓 磬镟溴龛 磬 篦囫蝾, 疣玑桦 觇 潆 泐腩耦忄龛, 疣珙疴嚯 疣玑痤襦腓 桤徼疣蝈朦睇 狺腚弪屙. 喻囫蜿钼 桤徼疣蝈朦磬 觐扈耨 腓豚顸 忸珈铈眍耱 镱溻羼蜩 栩钽 泐腩耦忄龛. 铃 篦弪 栩钽钼 镱 铎 篦囫蜿 恹桡瘥忄 赅礓桎囹 .

杨汶囫眍 溧眄 耦鲨铍钽梓羼觐泐 铒痤襦, 镳钼邃屙眍泐 . 勿屙狍疸, 镱耱眄 磬 恹犷瘥 躅 腓 39,2% 铒痤眄, 钺铖眍恹忄  蝈, 黩 皴 牦镫屙罨 桦 皴 疣忭 铐 恹徨痼 蝾泐, 觐泐 桁 磬漕.

袜 忸镳铖 忸珈铈睇 耧铖钺圊 疱龛 溧眄铋 镳钺脲禧 祉钽桢 玎蝠箐龛腓顸 铗忮蜩螯. 泥 皴徨 珥囹 恹耦觇 箴钼屙 疣玮栩 磬 怵屐 磬篦眍-蝈蹴梓羼觇 耩邃耱, 烟, 蜞 赅 33,3% 铒疣忄屐 镳邃豚汔腓 篑蜞眍忤螯 赅戾瘥 耜瘥蝾泐 磬犭屙 玎 溴蝈朦眍耱 麟屙钼 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃 溧驽 玎 襦扈扈 桤徼疣蝈扈 赅徼磬 潆 泐腩耦忄龛! 耦驵脲龛,  泐忸痂 镱赅 妁 龛珀铋 镳噔钼铋 牦朦蝮疱 犷朦 鬣耱 磬皴脲龛 磬 耱疣睇.

填腩溴纥 镳邃豚汔豚 镥疱轵 泐腩耦忄龛 镱耩邃耱忸 软蝈痦弪, 镳桠钿 赅麇耱忮 镳桁屦 蜞觐 泐腩耦忄龛 蓠蝾龛. 袜 磬 忡汶, 溧眄 忄痂囗 潆 蓄耨梃 镳彐溴怵屐屙屙, 蜞 赅 礤 怦 沭噫溧礤 钺豚溧 觐祜蝈疣扈 恹躅漕 软蝈痦弪. 蝾祗 驽, 礤 疱 忸镳铖 犷瘘徨 耦 珉铎囔杌 耔耱屐.

橡铉怏鬣腓 漕耱囹铟眍 沭囔铗睇 镳邃腩驽龛 篑蜞眍忤螯 溴骟瘃蜮 扈腓鲨 礤 蝾朦觐 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 忸珉 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 篦囫蜿, 眍 磬 礤觐蝾痤 疣耨蝾龛 铗 礤泐, 沅 赅 疣-蜞觇 噻泐疣 耱疣耱杌. 蜞觇 戾耱圊 钺眍 磬躅蝰 玎桧蝈疱耦忄眄 腓鲟, 稃蜞桢 桉赅玷螯 栩钽 泐腩耦忄龛 矬蝈 怆龛 磬 忸脲桤怆屙桢 桤徼疣蝈脲 (镱潢箫, 筱钼铕, 忖邃屙桢 玎犭箧溴龛 桦 溧驽 筱痤琨). 项 怆龛 镱镟溧弪 耠噌 玎眄 鬣耱 磬皴脲龛: 漕忮瘅桠 镱骅臌 膻滂;

眢驿帼羼 溴礤骓 耩邃耱忄 泐蝾恹 铗溧螯 疋铋 泐腩 镳嚓蜩麇耜 玎 膻猁 溴睃汨, 蜞觇 磬 耱疣礤 礤爨腩, 蝈 犷脲, 铐 怦 疣忭 礤 漕忮 疱珞朦蜞蜞 恹犷痤.

袜 磬 忡汶, 礤钺躅滂祛 箐咫栩 漕腈眍 忭桁囗桢 钺篦屙棹 磬犭囹咫彘, 镳铖忮龛 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃, 镱恹龛 镳噔钼铋 牦朦蝮瘥 襦扈 桤徼疣蝈脲. 锣骓, 黩钺 泐腩耋桢 珥嚯 钺 镱漕 镳钼邃屙 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 镳铞羼襦, 疋铊 镳噔 钺玎眄铖蜩 礤, 蝾 麒耠 镳噔 磬 镱溧黧 驵腩猁 磬 溴轳蜮桢 (徨玟彘耱忤) 麟屙钼 桤徼疣蝈朦眍 觐扈耨梃. 杨犭屙桢 镳噔桦 镳钼邃屙 恹犷痤 忸 祉钽铎 玎忤耔 铗 嚓蜩忭铋 镱玷鲨 襦扈 桤徼疣蝈脲. 洛潼 桁屙眍 镟耨桠眍耱, 礤漕忮痂, 礤玎桧蝈疱耦忄眄铖螯 桤徼疣蝈脲 铗牮帼 痤觇 耧尻蝠 忸珈铈眍耱彘 潆 珉铙镱蝠遽脲龛 嚓蜩忭, 桤忸痤螂桠 祛眄桕囔.

橡邃豚汔屐 忖羼蜩 铍圊 羿牦朦蜞蜩恹, 磬 觐蝾瘥 祛腩溴纥 耢铈弪 镳桀狃羼蜩 怦 礤钺躅滂禧 珥囗 赅襦蝈朦眍 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 镳噔.

LEX RUSSICA (屠幼哇 倚幽 堂蘩)

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION

Nowadays the popularity of multinational corporations is growing at high speed. Multinational corporation is a large company that has factories, offices and business in many different countries. Though the number of these corporations round the world has grown rapidy only during the last 30 years, many legal questions related to their business have already emerged and it has had a great impact on the international law system. The main question that bothers even ordinary people is related to human rights. How much attention must multinational corporations really pay to potential human rights abuses in overseas operations? It is quite a controversial issue not only because we do not have enough laws on this subject but also because of their imperfection.

The first legal document related somehow to this issue appeared in U.S.

Since 1789 Alien Tort Claims Act permits foreign claimants to file actions in federal courts based on desgrete set of torts 搗iolations of the law nations committed abroad. The act remained dormant until 1980, when Paraguayan citizens filed suit in New York under the ATCA against a Paraguayan police official for acts of torture and murder in Paraguay. When the lawsuit was permitted to proceed, many others followed.

Since then, dozens of companies have faced complaints. Recent subjects of scrutiny include Bridgestone Firestone, for treatment of workers in Liberia;

Yahoo, for providing information about dissidents to the Chinese government;

Nestl, Archer Daniels Midland and others, for allegedly trafficking children to cultivate and harvest cocoa beans in the Ivory Coast;

and Dole Foods, Dow Chemicals and others, regarding the use of a pesticide on fruit plantations in West Africa that allegedly left worker Despite the number of corporate ATCA cases that have been filed since 1993, only one has survived dispositive motions and proceeded to trial: Estate of Rodriquez v. Drummond Co. Drummond抯 management in Colombia provided financial and other support to paramilitary and military units to eliminate the union from the company抯 huge open-pit mine near the town of La Loma. The jury ruled in Drummond抯 favor.

In international law practice there is an unusual opinion on multinational corporations liability for aiding foreign governments. Some international law scholars consider American intervention in Iraq a violation of the United Nations 念觌噤 镱徨滂蝈脲 戾驿箜囵钿眍 戾驸箸钼耜铋 觐眙屦屙鲨 Charter. Thus, under the private aiding theory, any private citizen who aided the United States by selling fuel to the armed forces could be forced into courts around the world to defend its role in aiding the alleged illegal acts by the United States.

It is still vitally important for multinational companies and their in-house counsel to plan carefully and pay close attention to ATCA concerns. Here are some modest suggestions for helping companies weather the ATCA storm.

What can a company do to prevent all this problems? As a first step, many multinational companies have instituted codes of conduct to emphasize their commitment to promoting and protecting human rights. Such a code should be crafted in broad terms. In light of the 揹isparity of results and differences of opinion, in the words of one court, a corporate code of conduct cannot reasonably cover, or anticipate, every specific ATCA cause of action. Instead, it should broadly target various types of conduct, underscoring the company抯 formal commitment to supporting human rights. While there is no precise formula, at a minimum, the code should be tailored to the company抯 specific industry or industries. For example, if the company manufactures clothing, the code might include specific provisions related to factory conditions. It also should at least incorporate relevant provisions contained in applicable international laws and treaties, such as the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights and the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Such a code can aid a company in many tangible ways, provided that it is meaningfully enforced. For instance, it can provide specific guidance to managers, employees and subsidiaries about conduct that is proper and improper, thus potentially preventing actions that could sprout into ATCA lawsuits. It can also demonstrate to a judge or jury that the company is attentive to preventing human rights abuses.

And it can help cast the company as a solid international citizen, an image that every multinational entity should strive to achieve but is particularly consequential in the ATCA context, given the injury to a company抯 reputation that often accompanies these lawsuits.

Secondly, they should define the relationships with those outside the company. The code of conduct also can be used in agreements with overseas venturers, partners and contractors. Many ATCA lawsuits start with alleged misdeeds that were not committed by multinational corporations or their employees. Instead, they often arise based on acts of third parties, with victims seeking to attribute the wrongdoings to the company itself. Given that threat, multinational companies and their subsidiaries should tailor their contracts with third parties accordingly. Agreements might include clauses that require outside groups to adhere to the company抯 code of conduct in whole or relevant part, making prohibited practices a breach of the agreement. They might also include a provision declaring the company抯 expectation that the third party will adhere to local civil and criminal codes. Agreements also might clearly identify the multinational company抯 degree of responsibility over, and rights in, the third party. If no such responsibilities or rights exist, a particularly helpful fact in terms of ACTA litigation, the agreements certainly should reflect that.

LEX RUSSICA (屠幼哇 倚幽 堂蘩)

Also make clear your relationships with government entities. That approach to relationships with third parties should encompass government entities.

揤iolations of the law of nations traditionally have been limited to misconduct by states or state officials. Consistent with that approach, most causes of action under the ATCA have a state action requirement, limiting claims to alleged wrongful acts by government agents or private actors acting with the imprimatur of or in conjunction with government personnel. Accordingly, a company抯 formal and informal relationships with government and quasi-government entities must be closely scrutinized. As a rule, direct reliance for services on government entities or regimes with records of human rights abuses should be minimized.



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